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Regularization of Cadastre and Registry
The main purpose of the consultancy is to draw up a program for land regulation in Costa Rica that will make it possible to devise a project that the Bank can consider for financing.

Project Detail


Costa Rica

Project Number


Approval Date

November 10, 1999

Project Status


Project Type

Technical Cooperation





Lending Instrument


Lending Instrument Code




Facility Type


Environmental Classification


Total Cost

USD 260,000.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 20,000.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 240,000.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
ATN/II-6745-CR Sovereign Guaranteed USD - United States Dollar Italian Fund for Technical Cooperation P Nonreimbursable
Operation Number ATN/II-6745-CR
  • Lending Type: Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - United States Dollar
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Italian Fund for Technical Cooperation P
  • Financial Instrument: Nonreimbursable
Published 2024
Taxation when Markets are not Competitive: Evidence from a Loan Tax
We study the interaction of market structure and tax-and-subsidy strategies utilizing pass-through estimates from the unexpected introduction of a loan tax in Ecuador, a quantitative model, and a comprehensive commercial-loan dataset. Our model generalizes bank competition theories, including Bertrand-Nash competition, credit rationing, and joint-maximization. While we find the loan tax is distortionary, neglecting the possibility of non-competitive lending inflates estimated tax deadweight loss by 80% because non-competitive banks internalize some of the burden. Conversely, subsidies are less effective in non-competitive settings. If competition were stronger, tax revenue would be 10% lower. The findings suggest that policymakers should consider market structure in tax-and-subsidy strategies.
Published 2024
The Promises of Digital Bank Accounts for Low-income Individuals
The push for adopting digital modes of payment rests on three promises: increased efficiency of transactions, increased financial inclusion, and improvements in the financial well-being of low-income individuals. We experimentally test the extent to which these promises are fulfilled. We exploit the random assignment into an intervention to encourage direct deposits of recurrent government benefits into digital bank accounts in Colombia. Switching from cash to direct deposits reduces disbursement errors and increases access to benefits among eligible beneficiaries. It also increases the ownership of bank accounts, the demand for formal loans, and loan take-up among individuals without a financial history. However, we do not find evidence of improvements in financial well-being across any of our metrics.
Published 2023
Costos y beneficios de lograr la carbono-neutralidad en América Latina y el Caribe
¿Son el desarrollo y la descarbonización objetivos contradictorios o complementarios? En este informe, exploramos cómo América Latina y el Caribe pueden mejorar los resultados socioeconómicos y de desarrollo y al mismo tiempo alcanzar cero emisiones netas de gases de efecto invernadero para 2050. Específicamente, presentamos SiSePuede, un conjunto de herramientas de modelado de descarbonización de código abierto que evalúa los costos, beneficios y reducciones de emisiones en toda la economía. Descubrimos que maximizar las acciones podría lograr emisiones netas cero en la región antes de 2050 y 2,7 billones (millones de millones) de dólares netos en beneficios en comparación con el desarrollo más tradicional. Los beneficios incluyen enormes ahorros en costos de combustible; costos evitados por la reducción de la contaminación del aire, la congestión y los accidentes automovilísticos; y el valor de los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques. Aunque hay muchos caminos hacia las emisiones netas cero, tres acciones son fundamentales: producir electricidad con energías renovables, electrificar el transporte y proteger y restaurar los bosques deteniendo la deforestación y cambiando los patrones de producción de alimentos. Las estrategias que abarcan a toda la economía y que implementan estas acciones a escala pueden reducir drásticamente las emisiones y generar enormes beneficios para la región, incluso en medio de profundas incertidumbres, con una mediana de 1 billón de dólares en beneficios netos en todos los escenarios. Estos beneficios se distribuyen de manera desigual entre sectores y actores y a lo largo del tiempo, por lo que lograrlos y garantizar una transición justa hacia cero emisiones netas requiere que los gobiernos superen importantes barreras financieras, regulatorias, de infraestructura y de otro tipo. Cada país debe adaptar su propia estrategia para abordar los objetivos de desarrollo y emisiones en función de las prioridades, capacidades, recursos y capacidad técnica locales. SiSePuede proporciona una base analítica sólida para respaldar estos esfuerzos.
Published 2023
¿Por qué necesitamos mejores regulaciones para lograr mejores resultados de política pública?
¿Has percibido cómo las regulaciones inciden sobre casi todos los aspectos del funcionamiento de las sociedades modernas? Diariamente, vemos discusiones sobre regulaciones de las redes sociales, del sistema financiero, del uso de la inteligencia artificial y otros temas que afectan directamente nuestras vidas. Son las regulaciones las que establecen las reglas del juego para la
Published 2023
President's Report 2023
IDB Report of the President 2023.
Published 2024
Financial Development, Growth, and Inequality: The Role of Institutions in Latin America and the Caribbean
This publication explores the relationships between institutions, financial development, and income inequality. It assesses the extent of reforms that can promote financial development and argues that institutional improvements capable of increasing financial development can simultaneously mitigate income inequality. This work, focusing on the Latin American and Caribbean region, uses a broad set of measures of financial development, financial institutions, and capital markets. It employs a comprehensive set of inequality indicators and income definitions, as well an econometric model of the financial possibility frontier, to demonstrate that institutions contributing to financial development also help reduce income inequality.
Published 2024
Latin America and the Caribbean Standardized Public Debt Database: Data as of June 2023
This database compiles current standardized statistics on sovereign debt issuances for the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region and contains biannual data starting in 2006 through June 2023. Sovereign debt data is classified by legislation, creditor, currency, and maturity, among other areas, for 26 LAC countries. The availability of valid, comparable, and standardized public debt data is essential for the implementation of sound policies. As such, at the core of the LAC Debt Group initiative is the development of a standardized sovereign debt database to help debt managers, policymakers, and other actors of financial markets analyze the evolution and composition of public debt in the region and conduct cross-country comparisons. LAC public debt offices provided the data in response to a questionnaire specifically designed to allow comparability. The questionnaire, whose response is non-compulsory, is intended to compile current standardized statistics for objective and homogeneous definitions of public debt.
Published 2020
¿Hacia un catastro multipropósito en la República Dominicana?
Generalmente el catastro ha tenido como función tradicional servir de base de información al público sobre la ubicación y extensión, la posesión o propriedad y el valor asignado a los bienes inmuebles. Así, contar con un inventario completo y actualizado de bienes inmuebles en un catastro físico, jurídico y fiscal siempre ha sido considerado clave,
Published 2022
A roadmap to the mobility and logistics trends that are reshaping Latin America and the Caribbean
Today, governments are acutely aware that merely building new infrastructure is not the solution, and they are seeking the IDB Groups assistance in designing smarter transportation services that will meet their peoples expectations. This document describes the five broad shifts that are driving the IDB Groups transportation portfolio: (i) the social dimension of transportation services; (ii) new institutional and regulatory arrangements; (iii) logistics performance; (iv) secure resources for maintaining transport infrastructure, and (v) the digital transformation.
Published 2023
US Banking Fragilities and the Potential Impacts on Latin America and the Caribbean
Several bank failures, and the high volatility in US bank equity prices, have raised considerable concern in recent weeks. The March 10 failure of Silicon Valley Bank (SVB) followed just two days later by that of Signature Bank shocked many observers. There were hopes that these were isolated incidents, but other regional banks soon came
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