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The Social Impact of the Successful Smes in LA
The objective of the technical cooperation is to study the existing relationship among exports, social impact and innovation in the case of small and medium latin american enterprises (pymes) and, based on those findings, prepare recommendations for the design of policies and programs to support pymes which will favor their competitive development with the generation of a positive social impact.

Project Detail



Project Number


Approval Date

September 5, 2006

Project Status


Project Type

Technical Cooperation





Lending Instrument

Instrumento del Fondo Multilateral de Inversiones

Lending Instrument Code




Facility Type


Environmental Classification


Total Cost

USD 89,000.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 30,000.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 59,000.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
ATN/TP-9986-RS Non-Sovereign Guaranteed USD - United States Dollar Trade and Poverty Trust Fund Nonreimbursable
Operation Number ATN/TP-9986-RS
  • Lending Type: Non-Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - United States Dollar
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Trade and Poverty Trust Fund
  • Financial Instrument: Nonreimbursable
Published 2023
The “Tiendita” and the Survival of Microenterprises Amid Competition from Large Firms
With its bountiful assortments of everything from tomatoes and milk to cigarettes and dog food, the little grocery store or “tiendita” is as ubiquitous and cherished as the bakeries, small liquor stores, and tacos stands that dot nearly every neighborhood in Mexico’s cities. But over the last 20 years, tienditas have faced significant competition from
Published 2023
How High Interest Rates Smother Innovation and Development
After the 2008 financial crisis, the tech sector in the United States boomed as efficient capital markets and low interest rates allowed new firms to exploit innovation. Yet in much of Latin America, the brilliant young innovator with a billion-dollar idea might find it hard or even impossible to raise the capital needed to turn
Published 2022
Exporting and Environmental Performance: Where You Export Matters
Empirical analyses that rely on micro-level panel data have found that exporters are generally less pollutant than non-exporters. While alternative explanations have been proposed, firm level data has not been used to examine the role of destination markets behind the relationship between exports and pollution. In this paper we argue that because consumers in high-income countries have higher valuations for clean environments than consumers in developing countries, exporters targeting high-income countries are more likely to improve their environmental outcomes than exporters targeting destinations where valuations for the environment are not high. Using a panel of firm-level data from Chile we find support to this hypothesis. A 10 percentage point increase in the share of exports to high-income countries is associated with a reduction in CO2 pollution intensity of about 16%. The results have important implications for firms in developing countries aiming to target high-income markets.
Published 2023
Cómo aliviar la crisis de crédito para las pequeñas y medianas empresas
Las pequeñas y medianas empresas (pymes) constituyen la inmensa mayoría de las empresas formales, y contribuyen con cerca del 50% del empleo formal en el país promedio en América Latina y el Caribe, e incluso con cerca del 80% en algunos casos. Sin embargo, a pesar de su enorme importancia para la economía de la
Published 2023
Easing the Credit Crunch on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) comprise the overwhelming majority of formal businesses and create around half of formal employment for the average country in Latin America and the Caribbean, with that percentage rising to 80% in some cases. Yet, despite their immense importance to the economy of the region, these firms consistently struggle to get
Published 2023
Chat GPT y el futuro de las pyme en América Latina y el Caribe
Este artículo aborda el potencial de ChatGPT para las pyme de América Latina y el Caribe, a la vez que constituye una ilustración de su potencial ya que se redactó -y se tradujo de su versión en inglés– mediante un proceso interactivo entre el autor y la plataforma, utilizando una sucesión preguntas que dirigían a
Published 2021
The Impact of ISO 14001 Environmental Standards on Exports
Analyses that examine the role of international standards on export performance has been concentrated on quality certifications. Very little is known about the impact of environmental certifications on exports. In this paper we employ firm-level data from Ecuador to assess the impact of the ISO 14001 environmental certification on export outcomes. The results show that holding an ISO 14001 increases the likelihood of becoming an exporter by 0.31 percentage points (equivalent to 4%), and that this positive effect is concentrated among large firms. We did not find evidence that the environmental certification has a causal impact on the level or the growth rate of exports. Consequently, the results suggest that the ISO 14001 certification is most useful in reducing information frictions, allowing firms to initiate export transactions.
Published 2021
The Effectiveness of Innovation Policy and the Moderating Role of Market Competition: Evidence from Latin American Firms
This paper evaluates whether market competition matters for the effectiveness of innovation policies. Using data for manufacturing firms in Chile and Peru, we implement propensity matching techniques combined with differences-in-differences estimation to evaluate the impact of innovation subsidies on the post-treatment innovation investment effort of firms and test whether such impact differs according to the intensity of competition. We corroborate the existence of crowding-in effects in beneficiaries when compared to a control group of untreated firms. The subsidy impact is found either only significant in highly competitive sectors or larger in more competition-intensive industries -compared to low competition ones. Thus, we confirm that market competition plays a moderating role in the effectiveness of innovation policies to stimulate firm innovation investment. The results are robust to different matching and estimation methods and suggest, therefore, the importance of considering market contexts in the design of innovation policies.
Published 2021
El papel de las pymes en el crecimiento de las exportaciones de los países
Las pequeñas y medianas empresas (pymes) pueden contribuir significativamente al crecimiento y la diversificación de las exportaciones de un país en el largo plazo, y las organizaciones de promoción del comercio (OPC) pueden cumplir una función importante en este proceso en los países en desarrollo. A esta conclusión llegamos tras analizar datos transaccionales de las exportaciones peruanas registradas en un cuarto de siglo, entre 1994 y 2019. Hagamos una analogía con las películas. Las superestrellas de las exportaciones son
Published 2022
The Virtuous Path of Exports ‘Compatible’ with the Brazilian Amazon Forest
Many times, when we talk about the Amazon, we tend to see its importance as the home of nearly half of the tropical carbon stocks in the world. But a detailed view shows that there is underlying economic potential to catalyze forest conservation and restoration with sustainable social and economic development activities through forest-compatible export
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