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Improving competitiviness and innovation for rural sectors
The resources of this TC will be used to contract a specialized consultant to support INE/RND in the analysis of innovation systems and public expenditure policies in various countries in Latin America

Project Detail

Country

Regional

Project Number

RG-T1656

Approval Date

December 8, 2008

Project Status

Closed

Project Type

Technical Cooperation

Sector

AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Subsector

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

Lending Instrument

-

Lending Instrument Code

-

Modality

-

Facility Type

-

Environmental Classification

-

Total Cost

USD 130,045.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 0.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 130,045.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
ATN/FG-11382-RG Sovereign Guaranteed USD - European Euro Spanish Framework - General Cooperation Nonreimbursable
Operation Number ATN/FG-11382-RG
  • Lending Type: Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - European Euro
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Spanish Framework - General Cooperation
  • Financial Instrument: Nonreimbursable
Publications
Published 2023
Costos y beneficios de lograr la carbono-neutralidad en América Latina y el Caribe
¿Son el desarrollo y la descarbonización objetivos contradictorios o complementarios? En este informe, exploramos cómo América Latina y el Caribe pueden mejorar los resultados socioeconómicos y de desarrollo y al mismo tiempo alcanzar cero emisiones netas de gases de efecto invernadero para 2050. Específicamente, presentamos SiSePuede, un conjunto de herramientas de modelado de descarbonización de código abierto que evalúa los costos, beneficios y reducciones de emisiones en toda la economía. Descubrimos que maximizar las acciones podría lograr emisiones netas cero en la región antes de 2050 y 2,7 billones (millones de millones) de dólares netos en beneficios en comparación con el desarrollo más tradicional. Los beneficios incluyen enormes ahorros en costos de combustible; costos evitados por la reducción de la contaminación del aire, la congestión y los accidentes automovilísticos; y el valor de los servicios ecosistémicos de los bosques. Aunque hay muchos caminos hacia las emisiones netas cero, tres acciones son fundamentales: producir electricidad con energías renovables, electrificar el transporte y proteger y restaurar los bosques deteniendo la deforestación y cambiando los patrones de producción de alimentos. Las estrategias que abarcan a toda la economía y que implementan estas acciones a escala pueden reducir drásticamente las emisiones y generar enormes beneficios para la región, incluso en medio de profundas incertidumbres, con una mediana de 1 billón de dólares en beneficios netos en todos los escenarios. Estos beneficios se distribuyen de manera desigual entre sectores y actores y a lo largo del tiempo, por lo que lograrlos y garantizar una transición justa hacia cero emisiones netas requiere que los gobiernos superen importantes barreras financieras, regulatorias, de infraestructura y de otro tipo. Cada país debe adaptar su propia estrategia para abordar los objetivos de desarrollo y emisiones en función de las prioridades, capacidades, recursos y capacidad técnica locales. SiSePuede proporciona una base analítica sólida para respaldar estos esfuerzos.
Blogs
Published 2022
O inconformismo dos jovens como mola propulsora de soluções para o crescimento do país
Que conexão podemos fazer entre a curiosidade e inquietação típicas da juventude e as necessidades de inovação e produtividade para o desenvolvimento do país? A resposta está em ver essas características como um trunfo na busca por mudanças que melhorem a vida das pessoas. É sempre muito útil para a construção de soluções inovadoras –
Blogs
Published 2023
La revolución de las agtech en la región Andina: ¿cómo la tecnología está transformando el futuro agrícola?
El sector de la agricultura ha sido tradicionalmente importante para la Región Andina. Según el estudio Nuevos horizontes de transformación productiva en la Región Andina, este sector representó el 8,5% del PIB en la región entre 2012 y 2021, ubicándolo históricamente como el segundo más importante. A esto se suma el hecho de que con
Blogs
Published 2024
¿Están los sistemas de I+D agropecuarios de la región preparados para enfrentar los desafíos de la agricultura?
El sector agroalimentario es crítico para el logro de varios objetivos de desarrollo sostenible (ODS) como el hambre cero (ODS2) y la erradicación de la pobreza (ODS1), así como los vinculados a la sostenibilidad y equidad ambiental (FAO). Por lo tanto, debe aumentar su capacidad productiva para alimentar a una población en crecimiento, y debe
Publications
Published 2022
Allocative Efficiency of Government Spending for Growth in Latin American Countries
There is scant empirical economic research regarding the way that Latin American governments efficiently allocate their spending across different functions to achieve higher growth. While most papers restrict their analysis to the size of government, much less is known about the composition of spending and its implications for long-term growth. This paper sheds light on how allocating expenditures to investment in quality human and physical capital, and avoiding waste on inefficient expenditures, enhance growth in Latin America. This paper uses a novel dataset on physical and human capital and detailed public spending that includes -for the first time- Latin American countries, which is categorized by a cross-classification that provides the breakdown of government expenditure, both, by economic and by functional heads. The database covers 42 countries of the OECD and LAC between 1985 and 2017. There are five main results. First, the estimated growth equations show significant positive effects of the factors of production on growth and plausible convergence rates (about 2 percent). The estimated effect of the physical investment rate is positive and significant with a long-run elasticity of 1.2. Second, while the addition of years of education as a proxy for human capital tends to have no effect on growth, the addition of a new variable that measures quality-adjusted years of schooling as a proxy for human capital turns out to have a positive and significant effect across all specifications with a long-run elasticity of 1.1. However, if public spending on education (excluding infrastructure spending) is added to the factor specification, growth is not affected. This is mainly because, once quality is considered, spending more on teacher salaries has no effect on student outcomes. Therefore, the key is to increase quality, not just school performance or education spending. Third, both physical and human capital are equally important for growth: the effect of increasing one standard deviation of physical capital or human capital statistically has the same impact on economic growth. Fourth, increasing public investment spending (holding public spending constant) is positive and significant for growth (a 1% increase in public investment would increase the long-term GDP per capita by about 0.3 percent), in addition to the effect of the private investment rate. However, the effect of public spending on payroll, pensions and subsidies does not contribute to economic growth. Fifth, the overall effect of the size of public spending on economic growth is negative in most specifications. An increase in the size of government by about 1 percentage point would decrease 4.1 percent the long-run GDP per capita, but the more effective the government is, the less harmful the size of government is for long-term growth.
Publications
Published 2022
Options for a Reform of the Mexican Intergovernmental Transfer System in Light of International Experiences
This paper focuses on the design of intergovernmental transfers to reduce vertical and horizontal fiscal imbalances and improve the performance of subnational governments. It provides an overview of international experiences, especially of large federations, with a view to devising viable options for reform of the transfer system in Mexico. While there is no one-size-fits-all ideal model of design and implementation of intergovernmental transfer systems, this analysis points to some lessons that can inform reforms, including the need to view intergovernmental transfers as an integral part of the overall system of intergovernmental fiscal relations; the use of different types of intergovernmental transfers that are best suited to fulfill different objectives; and the incorporation of equalization schemes to address regional disparities. In the light of these experiences, we find that the current Mexican transfer system is too fragmented, is linked to volatile oil revenues, involves substantial discretion in the allocation of a significant portion of the transfers, and lacks sufficient equalizing power. This paper presents and discusses possible reform options and demonstrates that it is altogether possible to reduce transfer dependence to promote effort and fiscal responsibility; simplify the system to increase predictability and ease its administration; eliminate discretion to increase transparency and establish stronger subnational budget constraints; and improve fiscal equalization to promote equity in subnational service delivery. Careful consideration of political economy dynamics is given in the simulations of possible reforms, with a view to minimizing short-term gains and losses as well as political opposition.
Publications
Published 2022
Agricultural Productivity in El Salvador: A Preliminary Analysis
The need to enhance food security while reducing poverty along with the growing threat imposed by climate change clearly reveal that it is imperative to accelerate agricultural productivity growth. This paper estimates micro-level production models to identify the major factors that have contributed to productivity growth in El Salvador, including irrigation, purchased inputs, mechanization, technical assistance, and farm size, among others. The econometric framework adopted in this investigation is grounded on recent panel data stochastic production frontier methodologies. The results obtained from the estimation of these models are used to calculate Total Factor Productivity (TFP) change and to decompose such change into different factors, including technological progress, technical efficiency (TE), and economies of scale. The findings imply that efforts are needed to improve productivity in both technological progress and technical efficiency where the latter is a measurement of managerial performance. This in turn indicates that resources should be devoted to promoting the adoption and diffusion of improved technologies while enhancing managerial capabilities through agricultural extension.
Blogs
Published 2022
Chamada Aberta: o Desafio “Cidades para Todos” já começou!
Como estabelecer uma cultura de inovação nos governos? Dois dos maiores desafios para a inovação pública são a desconfiança da comunidade e a falta de colaboração entre as esferas pública e privada. Em geral, para construir uma relação de confiança com a comunidade, os governos locais devem levar em conta o seguinte: • Garantir que
Blogs
Published 2023
¿Cómo puede el poder de compra del Estado fomentar la innovación? 
Acercar la innovación a las compras y las contrataciones públicas es una medida esencial para mejorar la gestión pública y mejorar la calidad de vida de la población. La innovación genera mayor eficiencia en las compras públicas, posibilita el acceso a productos y servicios de calidad superior y genera ahorros a las arcas públicas, optimizando
Publications
Published 2021
Puertos Inteligentes: estrategia de desarrollo para el Puerto del Callao
El manual de puertos inteligentes es un documento creado para facilitar la monitorización y evaluación del proceso de transformación de los emplazamientos portuarios en puertos inteligentes por parte de las Autoridades Portuarias y los Operadores de Terminales. El manual, el cual basa su contenido en la identificación de buenas prácticas internacionales para la implementación de puertos inteligentes, enumera distintas iniciativas de puertos inteligentes e incluye un listado de indicadores cuantitativos y cualitativos que pueden ser medidos de cara al seguimiento y valoración del desarrollo alcanzado. El manual integra una visión holística del ecosistema legal y tecnológico necesario para crear puertos inteligentes.
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