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Support to the Reform Program for the Sustainability of the Electricity Sector
The overall objective of this Technical Cooperation (TC) is to support the Government of Panama in the implementation of a process of policy reform (PN-L1145), which seeks sustainable development of the energy sector, through: strengthening institutional capacity and sustainable reorientation of subsidies in the sector; diversification of the energy matrix with emphasis on the development of the natural gas industry; institutional consolidation of the Energy Efficiency Program; and strengthening the regulatory and technical capability to provide and operate sustainably in isolated rural systems. The Program is consistent with the Bank's Strategy with Panama 2015-2019 (GN-2838), under the strategic objective of enhancing the logistics services, efficiency, and connectivity of the productive infrastructure

Project Detail

Country

Panama

Project Number

PN-T1169

Approval Date

July 13, 2017

Project Status

Closed

Project Type

Technical Cooperation

Sector

ENERGY

Subsector

ENERGY INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING AND CAPACITY BUILDING

Lending Instrument

-

Lending Instrument Code

-

Modality

-

Facility Type

-

Environmental Classification

Likely to cause minimal or no negative environmental and associated social impacts

Total Cost

USD 500,000.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 0.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 500,000.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
ATN/OC-16225-PN Sovereign Guaranteed USD - United States Dollar Ordinary Capital Nonreimbursable
Operation Number ATN/OC-16225-PN
  • Lending Type: Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - United States Dollar
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Ordinary Capital
  • Financial Instrument: Nonreimbursable

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Other Documents
https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-814100425-5
Anexo 3. Términos de Referencia.docx
Published Aug. 02, 2019
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https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-814100425-6
Anexo 4. Plan de Adquisiciones.docx
Published Aug. 02, 2019
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https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-814100425-8
Anexo 2. Matriz de Resultados.xlsx
Published Aug. 02, 2019
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https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-90591936-73
Expresiones de interes Plan Maestro de Universalizacion.pdf
Published Jul. 31, 2019
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https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-814100425-2
Anexo 1. Carta solicitud.pdf
Published Aug. 02, 2019
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Preparation Phase
https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-814100425-15
PN-T1169 Abstracto de CT.pdf
Published Aug. 02, 2019
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Implementation Phase
https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-814100425-16
PN-T1169 Documento de CT para Publicacion.pdf
Published Aug. 02, 2019
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President's Report 2023
IDB Report of the President 2023.
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The Promises of Digital Bank Accounts for Low-income Individuals
The push for adopting digital modes of payment rests on three promises: increased efficiency of transactions, increased financial inclusion, and improvements in the financial well-being of low-income individuals. We experimentally test the extent to which these promises are fulfilled. We exploit the random assignment into an intervention to encourage direct deposits of recurrent government benefits into digital bank accounts in Colombia. Switching from cash to direct deposits reduces disbursement errors and increases access to benefits among eligible beneficiaries. It also increases the ownership of bank accounts, the demand for formal loans, and loan take-up among individuals without a financial history. However, we do not find evidence of improvements in financial well-being across any of our metrics.
Publications
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Taxation when Markets are not Competitive: Evidence from a Loan Tax
We study the interaction of market structure and tax-and-subsidy strategies utilizing pass-through estimates from the unexpected introduction of a loan tax in Ecuador, a quantitative model, and a comprehensive commercial-loan dataset. Our model generalizes bank competition theories, including Bertrand-Nash competition, credit rationing, and joint-maximization. While we find the loan tax is distortionary, neglecting the possibility of non-competitive lending inflates estimated tax deadweight loss by 80% because non-competitive banks internalize some of the burden. Conversely, subsidies are less effective in non-competitive settings. If competition were stronger, tax revenue would be 10% lower. The findings suggest that policymakers should consider market structure in tax-and-subsidy strategies.
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