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Strengthening of the Public Banking System in Mexico
Contribute to the design, evaluation, implementation and consolidation of the efforts of the Government of Mexico to create a new Public Development Banking system in the country, generating real efficiencies in the financing of productivity in the various sectors of the economy, particularly accompanying BPD in the creation and consolidation of instruments aimed at: (i) industry and commerce with high national content; (ii) exports of manufactures; (iii) the promotion of infrastructure and housing development; and (iv) the vertical performance of the different agents supporting the industrial agricultural sector, such as financing, guarantees, capital investments, consolidation and production assurance.

Project Detail



Project Number


Approval Date

December 9, 2019

Project Status


Project Type

Technical Cooperation





Lending Instrument


Lending Instrument Code




Facility Type


Environmental Classification

Likely to cause minimal or no negative environmental and associated social impacts

Total Cost

USD 200,000.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 0.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 200,000.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
ATN/OC-17789-ME Sovereign Guaranteed USD - United States Dollar Ordinary Capital Nonreimbursable
Operation Number ATN/OC-17789-ME
  • Lending Type: Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - United States Dollar
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Ordinary Capital
  • Financial Instrument: Nonreimbursable

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Other Documents
Documento de CT - Divulgación_27181.pdf
Published May. 15, 2020

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Published 2021
Innovation and Competitiveness in Mining Value Chains in Latin America
This paper provides an international overview of the mining global value chain (GVC) and its most recent transformations and trends, focusing on Argentina, Brazil, and Peru. The study uses international trade data and patent and scientific publications data. By using trade in value added, we first investigate the role of those countries in the international mining trade, and their specialization, participation, and position in the mining GVC for the period 2005-15. The analysis is carried out for both mining products and mining-related services, and also looks at the contribution of services to mining exports. Second, we analyze the evolution of innovative activity and the direction of technological change in the mining sector over the past 40 years by looking at patent applications, both internationally and with attention to the three target countries. We also provide an overview of, and some insights on, knowledge flow in the mining sector based on scientific production.
Published 2024
Taxation when Markets are not Competitive: Evidence from a Loan Tax
We study the interaction of market structure and tax-and-subsidy strategies utilizing pass-through estimates from the unexpected introduction of a loan tax in Ecuador, a quantitative model, and a comprehensive commercial-loan dataset. Our model generalizes bank competition theories, including Bertrand-Nash competition, credit rationing, and joint-maximization. While we find the loan tax is distortionary, neglecting the possibility of non-competitive lending inflates estimated tax deadweight loss by 80% because non-competitive banks internalize some of the burden. Conversely, subsidies are less effective in non-competitive settings. If competition were stronger, tax revenue would be 10% lower. The findings suggest that policymakers should consider market structure in tax-and-subsidy strategies.
Published 2024
The Promises of Digital Bank Accounts for Low-income Individuals
The push for adopting digital modes of payment rests on three promises: increased efficiency of transactions, increased financial inclusion, and improvements in the financial well-being of low-income individuals. We experimentally test the extent to which these promises are fulfilled. We exploit the random assignment into an intervention to encourage direct deposits of recurrent government benefits into digital bank accounts in Colombia. Switching from cash to direct deposits reduces disbursement errors and increases access to benefits among eligible beneficiaries. It also increases the ownership of bank accounts, the demand for formal loans, and loan take-up among individuals without a financial history. However, we do not find evidence of improvements in financial well-being across any of our metrics.
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