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Capital Expenditures Electricity Distribution
The project consists in the development and implementation of a capital expenditure program for electricity distribution in Guatemala in the amount of $78.4 million to be undertaken by two distribution companies: Distribuidora Eléctrica de Oriente S.A. ("DEORSA") and Distribuidora Eléctrica de Occidente, S.A. ("DEOCSA") (together the "DISCOS") pursuant to the Sponsor's Strategic Business Plan ("SBP").

Project Detail

Country

Guatemala

Project Number

GU0151

Approval Date

December 4, 2002

Project Status

Cancelled

Project Type

Loan Operation

Sector

ENERGY

Subsector

NEW POWER DISTRIBUTION & TRANSMISSION PROJECTS

Lending Instrument

BID Invest

Lending Instrument Code

IIC

Modality

PSL (Private Sector Loan)

Facility Type

-

Environmental Classification

-

Total Cost

USD 25,000,000.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 0.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 25,000,000.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
1440/OC-GU Non-Sovereign Guaranteed USD - United States Dollar Ordinary Capital Private Sector Financing
Operation Number 1440/OC-GU
  • Lending Type: Non-Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - United States Dollar
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Ordinary Capital
  • Financial Instrument: Private Sector Financing

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Preparation Phase
https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-1330282580-7779
Capital Expenditures for Electricity Distribution [415548].PDF
Published Dec. 31, 1999
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https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-1330282580-10024
Capital Expenditures for Electricity Distribution [527669].PDF
Published Apr. 25, 2005
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https://www.iadb.org/document.cfm?id=EZSHARE-1025425929-10095
Programa de inversión para distribución de electricidad [452320].PDF
Published Dec. 31, 1999
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Publications
Published 2022
Allocative Efficiency of Government Spending for Growth in Latin American Countries
There is scant empirical economic research regarding the way that Latin American governments efficiently allocate their spending across different functions to achieve higher growth. While most papers restrict their analysis to the size of government, much less is known about the composition of spending and its implications for long-term growth. This paper sheds light on how allocating expenditures to investment in quality human and physical capital, and avoiding waste on inefficient expenditures, enhance growth in Latin America. This paper uses a novel dataset on physical and human capital and detailed public spending that includes -for the first time- Latin American countries, which is categorized by a cross-classification that provides the breakdown of government expenditure, both, by economic and by functional heads. The database covers 42 countries of the OECD and LAC between 1985 and 2017. There are five main results. First, the estimated growth equations show significant positive effects of the factors of production on growth and plausible convergence rates (about 2 percent). The estimated effect of the physical investment rate is positive and significant with a long-run elasticity of 1.2. Second, while the addition of years of education as a proxy for human capital tends to have no effect on growth, the addition of a new variable that measures quality-adjusted years of schooling as a proxy for human capital turns out to have a positive and significant effect across all specifications with a long-run elasticity of 1.1. However, if public spending on education (excluding infrastructure spending) is added to the factor specification, growth is not affected. This is mainly because, once quality is considered, spending more on teacher salaries has no effect on student outcomes. Therefore, the key is to increase quality, not just school performance or education spending. Third, both physical and human capital are equally important for growth: the effect of increasing one standard deviation of physical capital or human capital statistically has the same impact on economic growth. Fourth, increasing public investment spending (holding public spending constant) is positive and significant for growth (a 1% increase in public investment would increase the long-term GDP per capita by about 0.3 percent), in addition to the effect of the private investment rate. However, the effect of public spending on payroll, pensions and subsidies does not contribute to economic growth. Fifth, the overall effect of the size of public spending on economic growth is negative in most specifications. An increase in the size of government by about 1 percentage point would decrease 4.1 percent the long-run GDP per capita, but the more effective the government is, the less harmful the size of government is for long-term growth.
Publications
Published 2022
Options for a Reform of the Mexican Intergovernmental Transfer System in Light of International Experiences
This paper focuses on the design of intergovernmental transfers to reduce vertical and horizontal fiscal imbalances and improve the performance of subnational governments. It provides an overview of international experiences, especially of large federations, with a view to devising viable options for reform of the transfer system in Mexico. While there is no one-size-fits-all ideal model of design and implementation of intergovernmental transfer systems, this analysis points to some lessons that can inform reforms, including the need to view intergovernmental transfers as an integral part of the overall system of intergovernmental fiscal relations; the use of different types of intergovernmental transfers that are best suited to fulfill different objectives; and the incorporation of equalization schemes to address regional disparities. In the light of these experiences, we find that the current Mexican transfer system is too fragmented, is linked to volatile oil revenues, involves substantial discretion in the allocation of a significant portion of the transfers, and lacks sufficient equalizing power. This paper presents and discusses possible reform options and demonstrates that it is altogether possible to reduce transfer dependence to promote effort and fiscal responsibility; simplify the system to increase predictability and ease its administration; eliminate discretion to increase transparency and establish stronger subnational budget constraints; and improve fiscal equalization to promote equity in subnational service delivery. Careful consideration of political economy dynamics is given in the simulations of possible reforms, with a view to minimizing short-term gains and losses as well as political opposition.
Publications
Published 2020
Enhancing Energy Efficiency to Increase Affordability: Evidence from Residential Lighting Retrofit in Peru
In this paper, we discuss the Peruvian retrofit lighting program that was part of the National Energy Plan 2014-2025. Using data from the Residential Survey on Consumption and Uses of Energy or Encuesta Residencial de Consumo y Usos de Energía (ERCUE) for the waves 20142015, 2016, and 2018, we find that households have greatly benefited by replacing incandescent light bulbs with energy-saving and LED bulbs between the year of implementation of the program, and 2018. Based on this data, we see that surveyed households have reduced their expenditure on electricity. Furthermore, compared to 2014-2015, since 2018, the poorest households (in the survey) have become less sensitive to changes in their monthly electricity expenditure. They have been able to meet their energy needs with higher consumption, and use energy-saving light bulbs due to the wide implementation of the program. These findings may help policy makers understand the impact of successful energy efficiency programs on households. In the context of developing countries, where affordability of services is a challenge, this work gives a novel perspective on the expectations of energy efficiency as a means to overcome this challenge.
Publications
Published 2022
Municipal Fiscal Health in Latin America
Cities are important drivers of productivity, innovation, and economic growth. To achieve their full economic potential, cities must deliver high-quality public services to their residents and businesses. This is very important for Latin American cities given rapid urbanization and the deepening of decentralization reforms in many countries. The extent to which they can carry out all of these responsibilities depends at least partially on their fiscal health, ability to meet their service, infrastructure, and financial obligations with the revenue available to them. This study assesses the fiscal health of 80 main cities in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, from 2010 to 2017, and explores the factors that drive it. A primary purpose is to provide a methodology for cities to assess their own fiscal health, given available data. As such, it helps to determine whether fiscal distress is building up in selected large cities across the region and to understand whether and how financial solvency, public service delivery, and the maintenance and expansion of urban infrastructure may be compromised.
Publications
Published 2022
Research Insights: Do Changes in the Composition of Public Spending Affect the Macroeconomic Consequences of Fiscal Adjustments?
Si bien las consolidaciones fiscales tienden a ser contractivas, el tamaño de la caída del producto depende de la composición de los recortes del gasto público. Una consolidación fiscal del 1% del PIB implementada mediante la reducción de la inversión pública en lugar del consumo público reduce el producto en un 0,7% en un plazo de tres años. En cambio, proteger la inversión pública de los recortes presupuestarios en relación con el consumo público puede neutralizar los efectos contractivos de los ajustes fiscales en el corto plazo, e incluso puede estimular el crecimiento del producto a mediano plazo.
Publications
Published 2021
The Output Effects of Fiscal Consolidations: Does Spending Composition Matter?
This paper studies whether changes in the composition of public spending affect the macroeconomic consequences of fiscal consolidations. Based on a sample of 44 developing countries and 26 advanced economies during 1980-2019, results show that while fiscal consolidations tend to be on average, contractionary, the size of the output fall depends on the behavior of public investment vis-a-vis public consumption during the fiscal adjustment, with heterogeneous responses growing over time. When public investment is penalized relative to public consumption and thus, its share in public expenditures decreases, a 1 percent of GDP consolidation reduces output by 0.7 percent within three years of the fiscal shock. In contrast, safeguarding public investment from budget cuts vis-a-vis public consumption can neutralize the contractionary effects of fiscal adjustments on impact, and can even spur output growth over the medium term. The component of GDP that mostly drives the heterogeneity between both types of adjustments is private investment. The results hold up to a number of robustness tests, including alternative identification strategies of fiscal shocks. The findings have policy implications for the design of fiscal adjustment strategies to protect economic growth as countries recover from the coronavirus pandemic.
Publications
Published 2021
Fiscal Rules and the Behavior of Public Investment in Latin America and the Caribbean: Towards Growth-Friendly Fiscal Policy?: The case of Argentina
This paper analyzes the implementation of Fiscal Rules (FR) in Argentina. Several clear attempts to establish a FR at the national level are identified. The analysis suggests that the environment matters. The only FR that was binding in the period was approved in 2004 during an economic boom, with the country under a program with the IMF and with high political support. During the world financial crisis the expenditure ceilings were relaxed, however, and current primary expenditures soared. Simulations show that a countercyclical fund could have been implemented even after reducing highly distorting taxes at the federal and provincial levels, and at the same time securing a high level of capital expenditure as a share of GDP, had Argentina complied with the 2004 FR. Moreover, an econometric exploration of the link between flexible FRs and public investment finds that a flexible FR helps to mitigate the negative effects of fiscal consolidations on provincial public investment. Based on the previous analysis, guidelines for a proposal for a FR in Argentina are provided.
Blogs
Published 2022
¿Cómo medir el gasto público climático en América Latina y el Caribe?
Combatir el cambio climático requiere hacer consistente el conjunto de flujos financieros públicos y privados con los objetivos internacionales establecidos en el Acuerdo de París. Como parte de esos esfuerzos se requiere desarrollar mecanismos de financiamiento y sistemas de información que permitan identificar, priorizar y evaluar los esfuerzos en el financiamiento climático de los países. En este contexto, un tema crucial es la identificación y evaluación del gasto público climático en los presupuestos nacionales.
Blogs
Published 2022
Empowering Electricity Consumers through Demand Response: Why and How?
The energy transition challenge requires everybody’s involvement and action. Demand Response (DR), a key mechanism for promoting individual action and increasing system efficiency, enhances sustainability through better use of resources, reduces the electricity supply cost and, potentially, increases affordability. Through financial incentives, demand-side programs encourage consumer response and stimulate changes in their electricity consumption. Incentives
Blogs
Published 2023
Cuatro tendencias sobre el uso del Presupuesto por Resultados en América Latina y el Caribe en la pospandemia
Los presupuestos son uno de los instrumentos de política pública más importantes de los gobiernos, ya que reflejan sus compromisos y estrategias, priorizando áreas en la agenda de los gobiernos.  Por eso, su buena gestión es un elemento clave para asegurar la eficiencia y la efectividad del gasto público.
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