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Contingent Loan for Natural Disaster Emergencies - Tropical Storm Julia
The general objective of the project is to help cushion the impact that a severe or catastrophic natural disaster or public health event could have on the country's public finances. The specific objective is to improve the financial management of natural disaster and public health risks by increasing stable, cost-efficient, rapid contingent financing to cover extraordinary public expenditures aimed at supporting the population affected by natural disaster and public health emergencies.

Project Detail


El Salvador

Project Number


Approval Date

October 28, 2022

Project Status


Project Type

Loan Operation





Lending Instrument

Préstamo de Inversión

Lending Instrument Code



CND (Contingency for Natural Disasters)

Facility Type


Environmental Classification


Total Cost

USD 27,000,000.00

Country Counterpart Financing

USD 0.00

Original Amount Approved

USD 27,000,000.00

Financial Information
Operation Number Lending Type Reporting Currency Reporting Date Signed Date Fund Financial Instrument
5631/OC-ES Sovereign Guaranteed USD - United States Dollar Ordinary Capital Contingent Loan for Natural Disasters
Operation Number 5631/OC-ES
  • Lending Type: Sovereign Guaranteed
  • Reporting Currency: USD - United States Dollar
  • Reporting Date:
  • Signed Date:
  • Fund: Ordinary Capital
  • Financial Instrument: Contingent Loan for Natural Disasters
Published 2022
Alcohol, Drug Use, and Road Traffic Injuries: A Multi-site Collaborative Study of Emergency Departments in the Dominican Republic and Peru
The objectives of this study are to report demographic and substanceuse characteristics and risk of road traffic injury from alcohol use, cannabis use, and combined use in a sample of emergency department patients from two countries in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Dominican Republic and Peru.
Published 2019
What is the Contingent Credit Facility?
Hurricane Dorian’s impact on The Bahamas is a reminder that natural disasters can cause devastating loss of life and property, and impacted countries could have urgent financing needs for emergency response following a catastrophic event. The Inter-American Development Bank’s Contingent Credit Facility for Natural Disaster Emergencies (CCF) is designed to provide a financial safety net
Published 2021
Domestic Violence Reporting during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Latin America
This article examines changes in the frequency and characteristics of domestic violence reports after the start of the pandemic and the imposition of mobility restrictions in six Latin American countries. The study uses three types of data sources: calls to domestic violence hotlines (for the City of Buenos Aires in Argentina, Colombia, and Peru); calls to emergency lines (for Ecuador, Lima in Peru, and Costa Rica); and police/legal complaints (for Colombia, Ecuador, and Uruguay). Data through June 2020 shows that the pandemic's impact on domestic violence reports varied significantly across countries, periods, types of violence, and reporting channels. Calls to domestic violence hotlines soared, but calls to emergency lines and police complaints fell (especially in the first weeks of the pandemic). Significantly distinct patterns are observed between reports of psychological and physical violence, and non-cohabitant and cohabitant violence. These patterns are consistent with the pandemic changing the relative incidence of different types of violence and altering the perceived costs of reporting them through alternative channels. Increases in calls to domestic violence hotlines suggest that this channel was best suited to respond to victims' needs during the pandemic. In turn, the drop in legal complaints and calls to comprehensive emergency lines are consistent with an increase in the perceived (relative) cost of using these channels. The findings reveal how the pandemic altered domestic violence victims' demand for institutional help and highlight the relevance of domestic violence hotlines as an accessible and valuable service.
Published 2022
Allocative Efficiency of Government Spending for Growth in Latin American Countries
There is scant empirical economic research regarding the way that Latin American governments efficiently allocate their spending across different functions to achieve higher growth. While most papers restrict their analysis to the size of government, much less is known about the composition of spending and its implications for long-term growth. This paper sheds light on how allocating expenditures to investment in quality human and physical capital, and avoiding waste on inefficient expenditures, enhance growth in Latin America. This paper uses a novel dataset on physical and human capital and detailed public spending that includes -for the first time- Latin American countries, which is categorized by a cross-classification that provides the breakdown of government expenditure, both, by economic and by functional heads. The database covers 42 countries of the OECD and LAC between 1985 and 2017. There are five main results. First, the estimated growth equations show significant positive effects of the factors of production on growth and plausible convergence rates (about 2 percent). The estimated effect of the physical investment rate is positive and significant with a long-run elasticity of 1.2. Second, while the addition of years of education as a proxy for human capital tends to have no effect on growth, the addition of a new variable that measures quality-adjusted years of schooling as a proxy for human capital turns out to have a positive and significant effect across all specifications with a long-run elasticity of 1.1. However, if public spending on education (excluding infrastructure spending) is added to the factor specification, growth is not affected. This is mainly because, once quality is considered, spending more on teacher salaries has no effect on student outcomes. Therefore, the key is to increase quality, not just school performance or education spending. Third, both physical and human capital are equally important for growth: the effect of increasing one standard deviation of physical capital or human capital statistically has the same impact on economic growth. Fourth, increasing public investment spending (holding public spending constant) is positive and significant for growth (a 1% increase in public investment would increase the long-term GDP per capita by about 0.3 percent), in addition to the effect of the private investment rate. However, the effect of public spending on payroll, pensions and subsidies does not contribute to economic growth. Fifth, the overall effect of the size of public spending on economic growth is negative in most specifications. An increase in the size of government by about 1 percentage point would decrease 4.1 percent the long-run GDP per capita, but the more effective the government is, the less harmful the size of government is for long-term growth.
Published 2022
Ocho tendencias de las finanzas subnacionales reflejadas en el Panorama de las Relaciones Fiscales entre Niveles de Gobierno en América Latina y el Caribe
Los gobiernos subnacionales (GSN) son esenciales para el desarrollo económico, tanto por su proximidad con los ciudadanos, como por ser responsables de servicios públicos que hacen al bienestar cotidiano de la población: desde la mejora del espacio público, recolección de basura y suministro de agua, saneamiento y transporte público; hasta la provisión de infraestructura; pasando
Published 2022
Options for a Reform of the Mexican Intergovernmental Transfer System in Light of International Experiences
This paper focuses on the design of intergovernmental transfers to reduce vertical and horizontal fiscal imbalances and improve the performance of subnational governments. It provides an overview of international experiences, especially of large federations, with a view to devising viable options for reform of the transfer system in Mexico. While there is no one-size-fits-all ideal model of design and implementation of intergovernmental transfer systems, this analysis points to some lessons that can inform reforms, including the need to view intergovernmental transfers as an integral part of the overall system of intergovernmental fiscal relations; the use of different types of intergovernmental transfers that are best suited to fulfill different objectives; and the incorporation of equalization schemes to address regional disparities. In the light of these experiences, we find that the current Mexican transfer system is too fragmented, is linked to volatile oil revenues, involves substantial discretion in the allocation of a significant portion of the transfers, and lacks sufficient equalizing power. This paper presents and discusses possible reform options and demonstrates that it is altogether possible to reduce transfer dependence to promote effort and fiscal responsibility; simplify the system to increase predictability and ease its administration; eliminate discretion to increase transparency and establish stronger subnational budget constraints; and improve fiscal equalization to promote equity in subnational service delivery. Careful consideration of political economy dynamics is given in the simulations of possible reforms, with a view to minimizing short-term gains and losses as well as political opposition.
Published 2023
What to Finance in Health and at What Price?
Learn from more than 40 experts from around the world about two key strategies to improve the efficiency of public spending on health and support countries to move towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC): explicit priority setting in health and instruments to achieve more affordable prices for medicines. Advancing towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) - or in other words, achieving access to health services for the entire population without causing financial hardship - is in everyone's interest and one of the great Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030, set out by the United Nations (UN) and signed by many countries.
Published 2021
¿Cuáles son los riesgos fiscales de los eventos climáticos extremos y cómo enfrentarlos?
América Latina y el Caribe es una de las regiones del mundo más vulnerables a los impactos climáticos, lo que implica grandes retos para los gobiernos y, en particular, los ministerios de finanzas y planificación. Según la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM), los impactos de los eventos relacionados con el clima, como las olas de calor
Published 2022
El futuro del presupuesto por resultados en países en desarrollo:  La importancia de simplificar
Países en desarrollo deben simplificar el procesos de implementación del presupuesto basdado en resultados para poder evaluar los resultados e impactos del gasto público.
Published 2021
Inter-American Development Bank Annual Business Review 2020
The 2020 Annual Business Review (ABR) provides an overview of the IDB's performance on sovereign-guaranteed outputs and lending program priorities. The ABR identifies trend deviations from IDB portfolio targets to support Bank managements efforts to identify and implement corrective measures. This edition compiles data for all quarters in 2020.
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