Glossary

ASSAULT

Assault means physical attack against the body of another person resulting in serious bodily injury, excluding indecent/sexual assault, threats and slapping/punching. 'Assault' leading to death should also be excluded. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

CJ

Criminal Justice

CTS

Crime Tendency System

DOMESTIC BURGLARY/HOUSEBREAKING

Domestic burglary/housebreaking means Burglary of a house, apartment or other dwelling place. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

FORMAL CONTACT WITH THE POLICE AND/OR CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

Formal Contact with the police and/or criminal justice system may include persons suspected, or arrested or cautioned, for a criminal offence, at the national level. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

INTENTIONAL HOMICIDE

Intentional Homicide means unlawful death purposefully inflicted on a person by another person. Data on intentional homicide should also include serious assault leading to death and death as a result of a terrorist attack. It should exclude attempted homicide, manslaughter, death due to legal intervention, justifiable homicide in self-defence and death due to armed conflict. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

KIDNAPPING

Kidnapping means unlawfully detaining a person or persons against their will (including through the use of force, threat, fraud or enticement) for the purpose of demanding for their liberation an illicit gain or any other economic gain or other material benefit, or in order to oblige someone to do or not to do something. Kidnapping excludes disputes over child custody. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT

Motor Vehicle Theft means the removal of a motor vehicle without the consent of the owner of the vehicle. Motor Vehicles includes all land vehicles with an engine that run on the road, including cars, motorcycles, buses, lorries, construction and agricultural vehicles. Rate calculated per 100,000 vehicles.

PERSONS CONVICTED

Persons Convicted means persons found guilty by any legal body authorized to pronounce a conviction under national criminal law, whether or not the conviction was later upheld. The total number of persons convicted should also include persons convicted of serious special law offences but exclude persons convicted of minor road traffic offences, misdemeanors and other petty offences. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

PERSONS HELD IN PRISONS, PENAL INSTITUTIONS OR CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Persons Held in Prisons, Penal Institutions or Correctional Institutions means persons held in Prisons, Penal Institutions or Correctional Institutions on a specified day and should exclude non-criminal prisoners held for administrative purposes, for example, persons held pending investigation into their immigration status or foreign citizens without a legal right to stay. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

RAPE

Rape means sexual intercourse without valid consent. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

ROBBERY

Robbery means the theft of property from a person, overcoming resistance by force or threat of force. Where possible, the category Robbery should include muggings (bag-snatching) and theft with violence, but should exclude pick pocketing and extortion. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

SENTENCED PERSONS HELD

Sentenced persons held refers to persons held in prisons, penal institutions or correctional institutions after a first instance decision or a final decision on their case has been made by a competent authority. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

SEXUAL OFFENCES AGAINST CHILDREN

Sexual offences against children means crimes of a sexual nature committed against children (per the age defined in the Metadata section below). These crimes should include child pornography offences, procuring a child for prostitution, statutory rape of a person below the age of consent and other offences related to the sexual exploitation of children. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

TOTAL SEXUAL VIOLENCE

Total Sexual violence means rape and sexual assault, including Sexual Offences against Children. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

BURGLARY

Burglary means gaining unauthorized access to a part of a building/dwelling or other premises, including by use of force, with the intent to steal goods (breaking and entering). Burglary should include, where possible, theft from a house, apartment or other dwelling place, factory, shop or office, from a military establishment, or by using false keys. It should exclude theft from a car, from a container, from a vending machine, from a parking meter and from fenced meadow/compound. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

PERSONS BROUGHT BEFORE THE CRIMINAL COURTS

Means persons brought before any legal body authorized to pronounce a conviction under national criminal law, whether the person is finally acquitted or convicted, at the national level. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

PERSONS PROSECUTED

Persons Prosecuted means alleged offenders against whom prosecution commenced in the reporting year. Persons may be prosecuted by the public prosecutor or the law enforcement agency responsible for prosecution, at the national level, irrespective of the case-ending decision. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

POLICE PERSONNEL

Police Personnel means personnel in public agencies as at 31 December whose principal functions are the prevention, detection and investigation of crime and the apprehension of alleged offenders. Data concerning support staff (secretaries, clerks, etc.) should be excluded. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

POLICE PERSONNEL

Prison Staff means all individuals employed in penal or correctional institutions as at 31 December, including management, treatment, custodial and other (maintenance, food service etc.) personnel. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

PRISON STAFF

Prison Staff means all individuals employed in penal or correctional institutions as at 31 December, including management, treatment, custodial and other (maintenance, food service etc.) personnel.

THEFT

Theft means depriving a person or organization of property without force with the intent to keep it . Theft excludes Burglary, housebreaking, Robbery, and Theft of a Motor Vehicle, which are recorded separately. Rate calculated per 100,000 population.

DEATH BY FIREARM

Any death caused by Injuries of projectiles fired with a firearm.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Any action or omission generating violence among the members of the family or the couple /ex couple, excluding sex crimes.

GROSS RATE

The quotient of cases of an occurrence and the population exposed to said occurrence. As a result, a rate is obtained that represent the mathematical probability of occurrence within a population at a determined point in time. When the denominator is the general population, the population up to June 30th for that specific yea. For example the gross rate of homicides is the ratio of the total number of homicides in the specified year and the total population for the same time period multiplied by 100,000 for each country.

INDIRECT RATE BY AGE AND GENDER

between countries. The standardization uses methods of adjustment based on weighted averages where the weights are selected to present an “appropriate base” for comparison, which generally corresponds to the sum of populations or some other external population that is relevant. In this case, following the guidelines from Schoenbach (1999), an external population was used. The indirect standardization is presented when the specific number for a specific age grape are small, when information on age groups is not available or when the population structure is very different, for which a “standardized mortality reason” is calculated

KIDNAPPINGS

Kidnappings: The act of depriving a fully identified individual of his/her liberty against his/her will, demanding economic benefit or benefit of any nature in exchange for that individual’s freedom.

ROBBERY

Take of another’s property or goods through any type of violence to the person or to the property to gain benefit through said exercise for oneself or for a third party.

SEXUAL CRIMES

Any sexually related action carried out without the consent of another, whether with penetration, and in the case of children, even with their consent.

SUICIDES

Deaths caused by self-inflicted and intentional injuries, for people aged 5 years and older.

THEFT

Taking possession of the property of another without violence against property or people.

TOTAL HOMICIDES

Intentional injuries caused by a person to another causing deaths - this does not include deaths by accident or non-intentional injuries.

Source: World Bank World Development Indicators

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT DEBT

Total (% of GDP)Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.

GDP (CONSTANT 2010 US$)

GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.

GDP (CURRENT US$)

GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.

GDP GROWTH (ANNUAL %)

Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.

GDP PER CAPITA (CONSTANT 2010 US$)

GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.

GDP PER CAPITA (CURRENT US$)

GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

GINI INDEX (WORLD BANK ESTIMATE)

Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

IMPROVED SANITATION FACILITIES (% OF POPULATION WITH ACCESS)

Access to improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population using improved sanitation facilities. Improved sanitation facilities are likely to ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. They include flush/pour flush (to piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine), ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet.

Improved water source (% of population with access)Access to an improved water source refers to the percentage of the population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).

INFLATION, CONSUMER PRICES (ANNUAL %)

Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.

INTERNATIONAL MIGRANT STOCK

Total International migrant stock is the number of people born in a country other than that in which they live. It also includes refugees. The data used to estimate the international migrant stock at a particular time are obtained mainly from population censuses. The estimates are derived from the data on foreign-born population--people who have residence in one country but were born in another country. When data on the foreign-born population are not available, data on foreign population--that is, people who are citizens of a country other than the country in which they reside--are used as estimates. After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 people living in one of the newly independent countries who were born in another were classified as international migrants. Estimates of migrant stock in the newly independent states from 1990 on are based on the 1989 census of the Soviet Union. For countries with information on the international migrant stock for at least two points in time, interpolation or extrapolation was used to estimate the international migrant stock on July 1 of the reference years. For countries with only one observation, estimates for the reference years were derived using rates of change in the migrant stock in the years preceding or following the single observation available. A model was used to estimate migrants for countries that had no data.

LABOR FORCE, TOTAL

Total labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who meet the International Labour Organization definition of the economically active population: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period. It includes both the employed and the unemployed. While national practices vary in the treatment of such groups as the armed forces and seasonal or part-time workers, in general the labor force includes the armed forces, the unemployed, and first-time job-seekers, but excludes homemakers and other unpaid caregivers and workers in the informal sector.

Life expectancy at birth, total (years)Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.

LITERACY RATE, ADULT TOTAL (% OF PEOPLE AGES 15 AND ABOVE)

Adult literacy rate is the percentage of people ages 15 and above who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement about their everyday life.

LOWER SECONDARY COMPLETION RATE, TOTAL (% OF RELEVANT AGE GROUP)

Lower secondary education completion rate is measured as the gross intake ratio to the last grade of lower secondary education (general and pre-vocational). It is calculated as the number of new entrants in the last grade of lower secondary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of lower secondary education.

MORTALITY RATE, ADULT, FEMALE (PER 1,000 FEMALE ADULTS)

Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year between those ages.

Mortality rate, adult, male (per 1,000 male adults)

Adult mortality rate is the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 60--that is, the probability of a 15-year-old dying before reaching age 60, if subject to age-specific mortality rates of the specified year between those ages.

MORTALITY RATE, INFANT (PER 1,000 LIVE BIRTHS)

Infant mortality rate is the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year.

NET ACQUISITION OF FINANCIAL ASSETS (% OF GDP)

Net acquisition of government financial assets includes domestic and foreign financial claims, SDRs, and gold bullion held by monetary authorities as a reserve asset. The net acquisition of financial assets should be offset by the net incurrence of liabilities.

NET MIGRATION

Net migration is the net total of migrants during the period, that is, the total number of immigrants less the annual number of emigrants, including both citizens and noncitizens. Data are five-year estimates.

POPULATION DENSITY (PEOPLE PER SQ. KM OF LAND AREA)

Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a country's total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and lakes.

POPULATION GROWTH (ANNUAL %)

Annual population growth rate for year t is the exponential rate of growth of midyear population from year t-1 to t, expressed as a percentage . Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship.

POPULATION IN LARGEST CITY

Population in largest city is the urban population living in the country's largest metropolitan area.

Population in the largest city (% of urban population)Population in largest city is the percentage of a country's urban population living in that country's largest metropolitan area.

POPULATION IN URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS OF MORE THAN 1 MILLION

Population in urban agglomerations of more than one million is the country's population living in metropolitan areas that in 2000 had a population of more than one million people.

POPULATION IN URBAN AGGLOMERATIONS OF MORE THAN 1 MILLION (% OF TOTAL POPULATION)

Population in urban agglomerations of more than one million is the percentage of a country's population living in metropolitan areas that in 2000 had a population of more than one million people.

POPULATION, TOTAL

Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.

POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATIO AT $1.90 A DAY (2011 PPP) (% OF POPULATION)

Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.

POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATIO AT $3.10 A DAY (2011 PPP) (% OF POPULATION)

Poverty headcount ratio at $3.10 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $3.10 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.

POVERTY HEADCOUNT RATIO AT NATIONAL POVERTY LINES (% OF POPULATION)

National poverty headcount ratio is the percentage of the population living below the national poverty lines. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.

PRIMARY COMPLETION RATE, TOTAL (% OF RELEVANT AGE GROUP)

Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, PRIMARY (% GROSS)

Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Primary education provides children with basic reading, writing, and mathematics skills along with an elementary understanding of such subjects as history, geography, natural science, social science, art, and music.

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, SECONDARY (% GROSS)

Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Secondary education completes the provision of basic education that began at the primary level, and aims at laying the foundations for lifelong learning and human development, by offering more subject- or skill-oriented instruction using more specialized teachers.

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT, TERTIARY (% GROSS)

Gross enrollment ratio is the ratio of total enrollment, regardless of age, to the population of the age group that officially corresponds to the level of education shown. Tertiary education, whether or not to an advanced research qualification, normally requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the secondary level.

SHARE OF YOUTH NOT IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT OR TRAINING, TOTAL (% OF YOUTH POPULATION)

Share of youth not in education, employment or training (NEET) is the proportion of young people who are not in education, employment, or training to the population of the corresponding age group: youth (ages 15 to 24); persons ages 15 to 29; or both age groups.

UNEMPLOYMENT, TOTAL (% OF TOTAL LABOR FORCE) (MODELED ILO ESTIMATE)

Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.

UNEMPLOYMENT, YOUTH TOTAL (% OF TOTAL LABOR FORCE AGES 15-24) (MODELED ILO ESTIMATE)

Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.

URBAN POPULATION

Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects. Aggregation of urban and rural population may not add up to total population because of different country coverages.

URBAN POPULATION (% OF TOTAL)

Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. It is calculated using World Bank population estimates and urban ratios from the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects.