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Publications

  • Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Sea Level Rise in Trinidad and Tobago

    Jeppesen, Gorm; Jensen, Roar; Tomicic, Berislav; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Muñoz Castillo, Raúl

    Date: Sep, 2015

    The case study in this report concerns Sea Level Rise in Trinidad and Tobago with the following overall objectives: 1. Define, in terms of measurable quantitative variables, the vulnerability of the water and sanitation sector in Trinidad and Tobago with respect to sea level rise. 2. Contribute to strengthen the capacity of the water and sanitation sector to adaptively respond to sea level rise through climate change in terms of the development planning and reducing the vulnerability in Trinidad and Tobago. 3. Contribute to the establishment of guidelines for "best practices" in adaptation to climate change with respect to potential effects of sea level rise in the water and sanitation sector in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) through this case study in Trinidad and Tobago. 4. Contribute to the Bank's across-the-board efforts to classify, monitor and evaluate its investments in reducing the vulnerability of climate change in the region.


  • Climate Change Adaptation Case Study: Climate Change Impacts during Droughts on the City of Trujillo, Peru

    Jensen, Roar; Asadullah, Anita May; Lasarte, Alejandro; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Muñoz Castillo, Raúl

    Date: Sep, 2015

    Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) has contracted DHI to conduct this study under a project called "Knowledge and Capacity Building Product". The overall objective of the project is the development of an initial portfolio of adaptation case studies allowing IADB to respond to requirements and needs of its member countries in establishing specific policies of adaptation to climate change with respect to impacts on water resources. The case studies are based on on-going IADB activities in the Latin American region and they are aiming at providing local information and analyses assisting the local water resources managers in coping with the climate change challenges but also to prepare guidelines on how to mainstream adaptation to climate change into implementation of Bank-funded projects and to recognise explicitly the impact of adaptation measures. The case study described in the present report forms part of this projects and concerns.


  • Community Learning Centers for the Implementation and Development of Sustainable Sanitation in Chile

    Saavedra, Guillermo; Garcia, Mariela

    Date: Sep, 2015

    Chile has a long tradition in Community Management of water supply and sanitation at the rural areas. However, 80 percent of rural areas don't have access to waste water treatment, with the risk of diseases and pollution of water sources. There are significant challenges to address to solve these, ranging from the necessity of infrastructure to cooperation and technology transference among peers, and technical and management agencies within the country. The implementation of the first Community Learning Center (CLC) on Environmental Sanitation in Chile is developed by FESAN with the support of national government, international organizations and academic sector from Chile and Colombia. The CLC will act as an education hub of rural water sanitation management. It will train, network and empower community leaders and operators of rural sanitation services, also being a demonstration center on eco-efficient treatment technologies. As a result, CLC will build a management model for cooperative operators and create knowledge on the adoption of eco-technologies.


  • Climate Change Adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in La Ceiba, Honduras

    Vega, Alberto; Jiménez, Roberto; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Muñoz Castillo, Raúl

    Date: Sep, 2015

    The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has recognized that its activities in the countries of the Latin America and Caribbean region have significant potential to be impacted by the effects of climate change. This is particularly the case for projects in the water and sanitation (WSA) sector that are currently in planning and execution stages in the region. Most adaptation experiences in the WSA sector have been developed at a global scale, with limited experience existing at a local level (e.g., at the basin scale). This gap presents the challenge of developing on-the-ground knowledge that deepens the IDB's expertise on adaptation to climate change in the WSA sector and helps to define policies and better practices in adaptation at the regional and country levels. This is specifically applicable to countries in Central America. The objective of this Technical Cooperation is to support the process of increasing climate change adaptation capacity in communities in Central America. By taking into consideration the range of possible risks and vulnerabilities, plans for future investments in water and sanitation infrastructure can integrate concepts that reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to climate risks, leading to more sustainable development outcomes. Honduras is currently considered one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in Latin America given its high exposure to extreme meteorological events. Six of the twelve strongest hurricanes of the 20th century have impacted Honduras, including Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which has been the most severe storm known to have hit the region. The storm brought about flash floods and landslides, which caused an estimated 10,000 deaths, destroyed 70% of the country's road infrastructure and drinking water supply network, and led to extensive crop losses. Forecasts of climate change for Central America suggest an increase in the frequency and intensity of tropical storms and intense-rainfall events. In addition, climate projections also suggest that sea level may rise up to 60 cm by 2050, putting further pressure on already vulnerable coastal areas. These natural hazards are a particular concern in the coastal city of La Ceiba, Honduras. This case study exemplifies a potential approach to addressing adaptation and vulnerability reduction in a developing coastal city. This adaptation experience has resulted in a stakeholder-focused adaptation strategy in the WSA sector that combines infrastructure and policy-based measures to reduce vulnerability to a range of natural risks, from sea level rise to river and coastal flooding to the contamination of drinking water sources. Lessons learned in La Ceiba are likely to be applicable to other efforts in the region where addressing coastal sensitivity to climate change is a top priority. Going forward, the results of this Technical Cooperation project will be used to inform the design of local and targeted adaptation measures to address climate change impacts in the WSA sector.


  • Climate services: A tool for adaptation to climate change in Latin America and the Caribbean: Action plan and case study applications.

    Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando; Muñoz Castillo, Raúl

    Date: Dec, 2014

    A variable and changing climate where uncertainties exist regarding its future extremes requires better quantity, quality and accessible information that support planning and decision-making processes, as well as infrastructure that can take changing conditions into account. New advances in science and technology have provided higher reliability in climate information, more resilient infrastructure and better insights into managing climate risks and opportunities. New practices and tailored climate information and adapted infrastructure-Climate Services-would be able to accelerate and strengthen the process in order to meet the growing demands for useful and usable climate information. In the LAC region, a vision for the development and implementation of climate services has been developed with a vision of integrating climate information into decisionmaking in socioeconomic sectors, through an effective dialogue between providers and users on the range, timing, quality, content and delivery format of climate products and services. Developing and effectively deploying climate information and climate-adapted infrastructure is an important challenge for the water sector in the LAC region. An effective response to this challenge must integrate meeting the needs of the users of such climate services and building capacity in the existing and next-generation of scientists, practitioners, managers and policy makers. With this in mind, this paper focuses on information and infrastructure activities within the overall framework of climate services for the LAC region.


  • Water and Sanitation in Belize

    Kuratomi, Traci; Martin, Dougal; Ducci, Jorge; Rihm, Alfredo; Rihm Silva, Juan Alfredo; Navia Díaz, María del Rosario; Grau, Javier

    Date: Jan, 2014

    In the last decade, Belize has seen major improvements in access to water, but it is behind in achieving universal access to improved sanitation facilities. Belize has also made progress in terms of the disposal of solid waste in the central and western regions, including in the largest urban area, Belize City. Despite these developments, there is a need to further improve the performance of these sectors, especially in terms of wastewater collection and treatment in urban areas throughout the country and solid waste collection and final disposal in the northern (Corozal and Orange Walk districts) and southern (Stann Creek and Toledo districts) regions of the country. This Technical Note was prepared to support the policy dialogue between the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Belize. It provides an analysis of the current situation of the water and sanitation and solid waste sectors in Belize, and makes recommendations on immediate actions to assist in further improving coverage and the quality of the services provided.


  • Institutionalizing Monitoring of Rural Water Services in Latin America: Lessons from El Salvador, Honduras and Paraguay

    Smits, Stef; Uytewaal, Erma; Sturzenegger, Germán

    Date: Nov, 2013

    In the last two years, various countries in Latin America have begun monitoring rural water supply service delivery, largely driven by two objectives: 1) to establish rural water inventories for investment planning, and 2) to better target post construction support. For such monitoring systems not to face sustainability challenges, clear institutional and financial arrangements must be established. The International Water and Sanitation Centre (IRC), the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), and the Spanish Cooperation Agency for International Development (AECID) have been supporting the design and implementation of such monitoring systems in El Salvador, Honduras and Paraguay. In coordination with local sector agencies, a methodology to define an institutional framework for monitoring was developed and tested. This paper provides an overview of the approach, including examples and cost estimates from the three countries.


  • Preparing Informal Recycler Inclusion Plans: An Operational Guide

    Cohen, Peter; Ijgosse, Jeroen; Sturzenegger, Germán

    Date: Nov, 2013

    This document objective is to assist practitioners and decision-makers engaged in the preparation and implementation of inclusion plans for informal recyclers working at final disposal sites. The key question addressed by this Guide is how to work with informal recyclers and other actors in the development of viable and sustainable solutions - both within and beyond the existing waste stream - that will allow informal recyclers affected by solid waste projects, such as the construction, rehabilitation or closure of final disposal sites, to maintain or increase their incomes in improved working conditions.


  • Gender and Recycling: Tools for Project Design and Implementation: Regional Initiative for Inclusive Recycling

    Rudin, Victoria; Van den Berg, Sophie; Abarca, Liliana

    Date: Oct, 2013

    This Guide is intended to be used in the preparation of projects that contribute to the formalization of recyclers and their integration into the recycling value chain. Through the application of the tools included in the Guide, it is possible to identify and take into account the needs of recyclers in each stage of the project cycle, in order to promote the creation and strengthening of spaces for the equal participation of women and men in decision-making and in the assignment of responsibilities associated with the project.


  • Decentralization, Fiscal Effort and Social Progress in Colombia at the Municipal Level, 1994-2009: Why Does National Politics Matter?

    Sánchez Torres, Fabio; Pachón, Mónica

    Date: Jul, 2013

    The present paper explores the relationship between political competition and effective public goods delivery systems in a decentralized context to study whether the awareness generated through such a competitive environment and the existence of more political options are a part of the causal mechanisms for effective governance. In particular, we want to observe the effect of electoral competition on the incentives to build fiscal capacity and provide public goods such as education and water, that are to a large extent the responsibility of the local municipalities. The research hypothesis is that political competition strengthens the decentralized municipalities through building their local fiscal capacity. In turn, the fiscal capacity is the fundamental variable that explains the differences in sector performance across local governments. Local fiscal capacity brings about better policy outcomes, as well as a better match between resources and the needs - what we call responsiveness - which simultaneously ensures greater efficiency in local spending. Using a rich panel municipal dataset from 1994 till 2009, we have shown that on comparing the differences across education and the water and sewerage sectors, the power of fiscal effort appears to be the driving force behind better policy outcomes than any other resource commonly made available to the municipalities, such as national transfers or royalties.


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