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Documents and publications

  • Slum Upgrading and Housing in Latin America

    Magalhães, Fernanda; Acosta Restrepo, Patricia; Lonardoni, Fernanda; Moris, Roberto

    Date: Oct, 2016

    The Latin American and Caribbean region has pursued a variety of policies with respect to slum upgrading and prevention, but the available literature does not provide a description of these experiences and their outcomes. This book examines the policies of three countries in the region, Brazil, Chile, and Colombia, which are notable for the breadth of their policy interventions and their diversity. These three countries have taken different routes but together provide a strong representation of the panoply of choices. The policies share a common feature of emphasizing access to housing of slum residents, but de-emphasizing other key issues related to slums, including fundamental issues of urban development. While this characterization of the region's policies is well known, the design and diversity of the policies that led to these outcomes are not. A key lesson of this book is that there are many methods to upgrade slums by improving the supply of housing for the poor, including slum clearance combined with resettlement and new housing developments without slum clearance. However, by failing to address broader issues that promote the emergence of slums, they may not leave slum residents any better off than they were before.

  • Public Investment for Sustainable Development in Chile: Building on the National Investment System

    Ahmad, Ehtisham; Viscarra, Hernan

    Date: Sep, 2016

    The Chilean National Investment System (Sistema Nacional de Inversiones, or SNI), is a model of consistent and transparent investment appraisal. However, the investment outcomes have exacerbated spatial and interpersonal inequalities, increasing informality, congestion, and pollution in metropolitan areas. This paper argues that the project selection methods used do not account for inequality aversion, congestion, and externalities. The manner in which funds are allocated to regions also has an impact on the outcomes. Using a generalization of the theory of reform and shadow prices by Drèze and Stern (1987), this paper presents a method to generate economy-wide shadow prices that can be linked to a desirable green growth strategy, as well as price and tax reforms to generate sustainable and inclusive investment outcomes. This can build on the strengths of the SNI method and investment management. The analysis includes a range of alternative estimates for critical economy-wide accounting ratios that could allow for a better linkage with sustainable growth.

  • International Case Studies of Smart Cities: Orlando, United States of America

    Lee, Sang Keon; Kwon, Heeseo Rain; Cho, HeeAh; Kim, Jongbok; Lee, Donju

    Date: Jun, 2016

    This case study is one of ten international studies developed by the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS), in association with the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), for the cities of Anyang, Medellin, Namyangju, Orlando, Pangyo, Rio de Janeiro, Santander, Singapore, Songdo, and Tel Aviv. At the IDB, the Competitiveness and Innovation Division (CTI), the Fiscal and Municipal Management Division (FMM), and the Emerging and Sustainable Cities Initiative (ESCI) coordinated the study. This project was part of technical cooperation ME-T1254, financed by the Knowledge Partnership Korean Fund for Technology and Innovation of the Republic of Korea. At KRIHS, the National Infrastructure Research Division coordinated the project and the Global Development Partnership Center provided the funding. As an international destination for theme parks, sporting events and conventions, Orlando approaches the smart city operation through Orlando Operations Center (OOC), an integrated facility established in 2001 by the Mayor after the 1997 hurricane. The major features of the integrated operation include the sharing of fiber optic networks and CCTV cameras, and close cooperation between transport, police and fire departments for road, criminal and disaster incident, and the emergency operation center within the OOC taking the lead in case of special event management and large-scale natural disasters. Along with the OOC, the city hall also utilizes smart city functions such as red light violation enforcement through detectors, bus management through AVL technology, GPS garbage truck tracking, and GIS water management. Orlando has experienced significant benefits in terms of shortened decision-making and response time, reduced operation cost, and improved environmental impacts, as well as enhanced service quality and communication with citizen.

  • The State of Social Housing in Six Caribbean Countries

    Donovan, Michael G.; McHardy, Pauline

    Date: Apr, 2016

    Despite the large number of social housing programs in the Caribbean, little is known about their outcomes and the factors underlying evolution of housing policy. This report reviews the implementation of social housing programs from 2000 to 2015 in the six Caribbean member states of the Inter-American Development Bank: The Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. The period studied encompasses the emergence of neighborhood upgrading programs, increasing urbanization, and the integration of environmental sustainability into housing programs, especially those in vulnerable coastal areas. The research employs two major research strategies: a comparative quantitative analysis of housing data (housing demand, deficits, and both formal and informal housing production) and six national case studies on social housing policy evolution. The report underscores the importance of housing to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and the larger agenda in poverty alleviation, economic development, and climate resilience.

  • Growing Resources for Growing Cities: Density and the Cost of Municipal Public Services in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Mexico

    Libertun de Duren, Nora Ruth; Guerrero Compeán, Roberto

    Date: Nov, 2015

    This paper finds that per capita municipal spending on public services is strongly and non-linearly correlated to urban population density. Optimal expenditure levels for municipal services are achieved when densities are close to 9,000 residents per square kilometer. In this study of approximately 8,600 municipalities in Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Mexico, 85 percent are below this ideal density level. This analysis provides strong policy support for densification, particularly for medium-sized cities in developing countries, which are currently absorbing most of the world's urban population growth.

  • Blanco Blanco, Andrés; Volpe, Federica

    Date: Mar, 2015

  • Rapid Urbanization and Development: Latin America and China Summit

    Libertun de Duren, Nora Ruth

    Date: Dec, 2014

    The People's Republic of China (China) and countries in Latin America face similar challenges in their cities. Their convergence is a consequence of the speed at which they have become urbanized. Although in China urbanization has occurred later, faster, and more massively than in Latin America, both cases imply a large migration of rural inhabitants to urban areas. In China and Latin America, the move to urban centers has meant significant social and economic improvement for the migrating population. In parallel, there has been a significant increase in the demand for urban services, often beyond the capacity of national and subnational governments. This publication is based on a summit that took place relating to those topics, held in Lima, Peru, in July 2014. It was co-organized by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Ministry of Housing, Construction, and Sanitation of Peru, and Inter-American Development Bank.

  • Rental Housing Wanted: Options for Expanding Housing Policy

    Blanco Blanco, Andrés; Fretes Cibils, Vicente; Muñoz Miranda, Andrés; Gilbert, Alan; Webb, Steven; Reese, Eduardo; Almansi, Florencia; del Valle, Julieta; Pasternak, Suzana; D’Ottaviano, Camila; Brain, Isabel; Mora, Pía; Sabatini, Francisco; Torres Ramírez, Jorge Enrique; Vance, Irene; McHardy, Pauline; Salazar, Clara; Puebla, Claudia; Ponce, Gabriela; Flores, René; Calderón Cockburn, Julio; Chiavone, Irene; Macellaro, Miguel; Silvera, Adriana; Kim, Jeongseob

    Date: Dec, 2014

    This book highlights the importance of renting and its potential to help solve the most pressing housing problems in Latin America and the Caribbean. Currently, 1 in 5 households in the region rent their homes, a trend which is most prevalent among the fastest-growing segments of the population, such as young people, single-person households and divorced people. This alternative can therefore help satisfy demand preferences and create greater residential mobility. Also, the quality of rented property is often similar to that of formal homes, even for households in the lowest income quintiles, proving it is an efficient and cost-effective alternative for resolving the qualitative and quantitative housing deficits in the region, suggesting that housing policies linked to better planning and improved territorial organization can lead to more dense, compact cities. For these reasons, the rental market may become a key instrument to compliment the region's housing policy.

  • Bonet, Jaime Alfredo; Muñoz Miranda, Andrés; Pineda Mannheim, Carlos R.; Díaz Frers, Luciana; Castro, Lucio; De Cesare, Claudia M.; Alves Dantas, Rubens; Duarte Ribeiro, José Luis; Portugal, José Luiz; Sánchez Torres, Fabio; España Eljaiek, Irina; Robalino, Juan; Hall, Luis J.; Slon, Pablo; Sandoval, Catalina

    Date: Nov, 2014

  • Larios, José; Robalino, Juan

    Date: Nov, 2014


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