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Poverty Reduction & Labor


A User's Guide to the Brazilian Education Panel Databases
Huberts, Alyssa; Machado, Fabiana
Technical Notes - English - Jun, 2017

The Brazilian Schools Panel database and Brazilian Municipal Education Panel Database combine and simplify 20 years' worth of data from the Brazilian School Census, educational testing, and educational indicators. This report provides an introduction to the data and serves as a road map to their strengths and limitations. In particular, it draws attention to the points in time at which major changes were made in the format of data collection, as well as the characteristics of different subsamples within the data. The report seeks to provide a practical introduction for researchers interested in using the data to understand and research the Brazilian education system.

Related JEL Codes:
H75 - State and Local Government: Health, Education, and Welfare


Education In Brazil: Panel Database
Huberts, Alyssa; Machado, Fabiana
Databases - English - May, 2017

The Brazilian Schools Panel database and Brazilian Municipal Education Panel Database combine and simplify 20 years' worth of data from the Brazilian School Census, educational testing, and educational indicators. This folder includes the database, organized at both the school- and municipal level, along with a report, which serves as an introductory guide to using the data. The dataset seeks to aggregate a variety of Brazilian government educational data sources, in order to facilitate more user-friendly research and analysis of the Brazilian educational system. Datasets are provided in both STATA and CSV form, and include codebooks with all variables.


Systematic Bias in Sensitive Health Behaviors and Its Impact on Treatment Effects: An Application to Violence against Women

Discussion Papers - English - Apr, 2017

Violence against women takes place mainly in the private sphere and is perpetrated by people close to the victim. These features can introduce large biases into its reporting in specialized surveys as well as to the authorities. We test for the existence of measurement error in the reporting of such violence using experimental methods in Peru, a country with several specialized surveys but one lacking reliable administrative data. We ask women to report past experiences of violent acts by randomly assigning them one of two questionnaires, one that replicates current surveys and another that relies on list experiments to provide a more private setting. We find no significant reporting bias on average. However, we uncover strong evidence of non-random measurement error by education level. For highly educated women, an increase in privacy leads to higher reporting of violence, while no change is observed for the less educated. The increase is large enough to reverse the education gradient in violence. We discuss how nonclassical error in the outcome variable affects the estimation of the role of risk factors on violence. In particular, randomized controlled trials underperform instrumental variables estimates and, under certain conditions, the former could lead to even larger biases compared to cross-sectional studies.

Related JEL Codes:
B41 - Economic Methodology
C83 - Survey Methods; Sampling Methods


Time Use and Skills Development in Latin American Households
Berniell, Inés; Allub, Lian
Working Papers - English - Apr, 2017

Using several sources of micro level data for Latin America and the Caribbean, this paper documents an important positive socio-economic gradient on parental and individual time investments in activities related to developing children’s skills. Higher-educated/income parents spend more time with children on both educational and recreational activities, especially when they are young. There are also gender differences in parental time investments. Parents spend more time with boys engaging in recreational activities than with girls, and spend slightly more time with girls on educational childcare. Regarding children’s time allocation, boys spend more time on recreational activities than girls do, while girls spend more time on educational activities outside school than boys do. These results are in line with those observed in high-income countries.

Related JEL Codes:
J13 - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth


Ageing Poorly? Accounting for the Decline in Earnings Inequality in Brazil, 1995-2012
Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Messina, Julián; Firpo, Sergio P.
Working Papers - English - Mar, 2017

The Gini coefficient of labor earnings in Brazil fell by nearly a fifth between 1995 and 2012, from 0.50 to 0.41. The decline in earnings inequality was even larger by other measures, with the 90-10 percentile ratio falling by almost 40 percent. Although the conventional explanation of a falling education premium did play a role, an RIF regression-based decomposition analysis suggests that the decline in returns to potential experience was the main factor behind lower wage disparities during the period. Substantial reductions in the gender, race, informality and urbanrural wage gaps, conditional on human capital and institutional variables, also contributed to the decline. . Although rising minimum wages were equalizing during 2003-2012, they had the opposite effects during 1995-2003, because of declining compliance. Over the entire period, the direct effect of minimum wages on inequality was muted.

Related JEL Codes:
D31 - Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
J31 - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials


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