This evaluation from the Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE) documents and draws lessons from what the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) has done over the past decade with a view to making a strong future contribution to increasing climate-change resilience and reducing GHG emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The evaluation will be organized into three sections and nine chapters. The first section will address the big picture, including climate change challenges and what the IDB is doing to support countries in overcoming these challenges. The second section will address the adaptation and mitigation interventions and actions that the IDB has supported through loans and TC operations in key sectors and areas, taking into consideration mainstreaming and any associated co-benefits, when possible. The final section will assess project performance and results to gauge whether or not projects are economically and environmentally sustainable and whether the promoted techniques are robust to evolving climatic conditions.
This paper discusses the merits of alternative definitions of the structural budget in the context of their use in the design and implementation of fiscal rules. To this end, the paper argues that there are three different purposes behind the notion of a structural budget balance: (a) separating permanent from temporary fiscal changes, (b) separating the cyclical from noncyclical components, and (c) separating discretionary from non-discretionary changes. This could lead to the interpretation of the structural budget balance as a permanent balance, a cyclically-adjusted balance, or a discretionary balance, respectively. The paper identifies and measures the items that differentiate the three concepts, and assesses each one on the basis on their analytical soundness, their methodological requirements, their empirical feasibility, and their usefulness as the basis of a fiscal rule.
La presente nota técnica desarrolla y valida una metodología para analizar la situación de la incorporación de la gestión del riesgo de desastres y la adaptación al cambio climático en los sistemas nacionales de inversión pública y proyectos de inversión pública por medio de los estudios de caso de dos de los países que forman parte del Sistema de Integración Centroamericana (SICA): Costa Rica y Panamá, así como la recopilación de información preliminar del resto de los países integrantes del SICA. La nota contiene una explicación del modelo que sirvió de base para el estudio, la descripción de la información recolectada con criterios y parámetros estudiados y conclusiones. Asimismo, el estudio incorpora información de las presentaciones nacionales del resto de países de la región participantes en la reunión de diálogo político en Guatemala el 8 y 9 de noviembre de 2012.
Este Informe sobre sostenibilidad abarca el progreso y desempeño del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo en materia de sostenibilidad durante el ejercicio económico de 2012.
The objective of this report is to assess the full and effective implementation of the Bank's support to Haiti in the wake of the 2010 earthquake, in fulfillment of the mandates of IDB-9, which included full debt forgiveness, delivery of concessional resources in 2010, and expansion of the Bank's Grant Facility to provide Haiti US$200 million per year for a period of 10 years (2011-2020), subject to annual approval by the Governors. The evaluation confirms that the financial mandates included in IDB-9 have been fulfilled. The Bank wrote off Haiti's debt and transferred resources to the Grant Facility to approve grants to the country over the amount previously established, for US$231.6 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, the Bank transferred US$200 million per year in Ordinary Capital resources to the Grant Facility. The Bank financed a program for an amount that exceeded the transfers made, totaling US$231.0 million in 2011 and US$228.0 million in 2012. As regards the Bank's role in catalyzing resources from other donors, there were intense efforts, and the Bank leveraged US$136 million in the period 2010-2012. That figure, however, is somewhat lower than for the period preceding the earthquake and the annual amounts received have fallen. Coordination of international donors has proven inadequate, given the challenges facing the country and the management and execution capacity of the Haitian government. In this context, the Bank's sector coordination work in some key sectors is both recognized and valued. The intervention strategy adopted by the Bank emphasized long-term efforts in the sectors where it had been operating, rather than reconstruction, and had very ambitious targets given the limited management capacities of the Government of Haiti. Execution problems, such as poor designs and preinvestment studies, combined with low execution and supervision capacity in executing units, limited the results of these programs. New programs for development in the northern hub, along with institutional support at the sectoral level, involve risks that need to be addressed in a timely manner to ensure results in the long term. Meanwhile, the urgent need for approval and disbursement of US$200 million each year for 10 years does open up new opportunities for establishing a long-term country strategy, but is hindered by the slow, complex process of institution building. The result is pressure on specialists from the Bank and in the country, and this does not necessarily lead to disbursements or to effective efforts to overcome the problems of Haitian society. Haiti remains a major challenge for the IDB, and international coordination is vital if progress is to be made in overcoming the country¿s urgent problems of poverty and low economic growth. In this regard, OVE believes that the effectiveness of the Bank's actions in Haiti will depend on assessing the constraints associated with country's fragile condition, redefining sector targets and outcomes in line with the context, and paying special attention to reconstruction efforts. Lastly, harmonizing approvals and disbursements with the actual implementation conditions in the executing agencies involved, and respecting the time-frames needed to provide assistance in institution building within the country through a segmented allocation strategy, would make it possible to ensure the Bank's sustained, long-term support.
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